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It started with “Fort Trump.” Last September, whereas visiting the White House, Polish president Andrzej Duda only half-jokingly steered that very identify for the brand new U.S. base he was proposing the Pentagon arrange in his country (and was providing more than $2 billion to help). In other words, he grokked this American president completely. If it works for golf courses, why not forts? And perhaps you gained’t be stunned to study that the administration of the person who had long promoted friendlier relations with Russia now appears to be forging ahead with Fort Trump, making certain that hundreds extra U.S. army personnel might be stationed close to the Russian border.
And Duda wasn’t the one overseas chief to note a presidential proclivity for spreading that identify far and large. What about, as an example, giving it to an Israeli group to be built in the once-Syrian Golan Heights that Donald Trump solely lately ceded to his previous pal Bibi Netanyahu? The Israeli prime minister, as the New York Occasions reported, just lately advised that “he would ask his government to approve naming a new Jewish settlement in the Golan Heights for President Trump, in appreciation of the American leader’s proclamation recognizing Israel’s authority over the long-disputed territory.”
There may, in truth, be fairly a future in such gestures. As an example, as TomDispatch common Rebecca Gordon points out immediately whereas taking us on a whirlwind tour of the newest upheavals in the Larger Center East and northern Africa, the president only just lately countermanded his secretary of state by making a private name to Libyan warlord Khalifa Hifter and offering his help for the overall’s push to take his country’s capital, Tripoli. Obviously, the least Hifter might do in return, ought to that metropolis fall to him (still a question mark), can be to rename it Trumpoli. It not solely is sensible, however matches completely with the famed U.S. Marine Corps hymn (“From the gates of Mar-a-Lago to the shores of Trumpoli…”)
Ah, the glories of a president who likes to see his identify writ in huge golden letters throughout the planet! Take into consideration that as you embark on Gordon’s tour of elements of that very same globe where different autocrats have already found themselves imperiled for their “high crimes and misdemeanors.” Tom
Spring Stirrings and Misgivings
Of Autocrats and Uprisings within the Center East and North Africa
By Rebecca Gordon
“Al-Shebab,” stated my scholar Jerry early in the fall 2010 semester. “We’re calling our small group al-Shebab. It means ‘The Youth.’” From his identify alone, I wouldn’t have guessed his background, however he was pleased with his household’s Egyptian roots and had satisfied his classmates to offer their group an Arabic identify.
As often happens when the semester ends and my dozens of students scatter, Jerry and I misplaced contact. The following April, nevertheless, we bumped into one another at a rally organized by students at my university to help the Arab Spring. Like many others around the globe, I’d watched transfixed as courageous unarmed civilians confronted down riot police on the bridges leading to Cairo’s Tahrir Square. I’d celebrated on February 11, 2011, when the corrupt and authoritarian Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak resigned as the army took management of that nation.
Jerry’s eyes sparkled when he saw me. “Isn’t it amazing?” he shouted. Sure, it was superb… until it wasn’t.
This spring, eight years later, there has been a new set of common uprisings in northern Africa, from Algeria to Morocco, to Sudan. Let’s hope they have more lasting success than Egypt’s Arab Spring.
It’s All Concerning the Army
The victory over Hosni Mubarak was indeed superb, perhaps too superb to final, since the actual arbiter of occasions in Egypt was then, and continues to be, its army. Within the parliamentary elections of November 2011, the long-suppressed Muslim Brotherhood took virtually half that body’s seats. In June 2012, the Brotherhood’s candidate, Mohammed Morsi, turned the nation’s first elected president, profitable a runoff race with slightly below 52% of the vote.
That August, Morsi made the transfer that might ultimately doom him, replacing his defense minister with Lieutenant Common Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. He additionally shortly turned in an increasingly autocratic course, issuing decrees granting himself extra energy and proposing a new structure that may do the identical (which was accredited by more than 60% of the voters in a low-turnout referendum).
By June 2013, many Egyptians have been annoyed each with Morsi’s increasingly authoritarian rule and the stagnation of the financial system. As soon as again, hundreds of thousands of individuals gathered in Cairo, this time to call for his removing, at which level the army pushed him out, installing the top of the constitutional courtroom, Adly Mansour, as interim president. Muslim Brotherhood supporters responded with violent attacks, burning police stations and government buildings. The federal government repression that adopted was fierce sufficient that, in October 2013, the Obama administration suspended the additional switch of U.S. army gear to Egypt. Ultimately, new elections have been held and, in Might 2014, Morsi’s Defense Minister, el-Sisi, gained the presidency with a suspicious 96.9% of the vote. By then, the Muslim Brotherhood had been outlawed and would soon be declared a terrorist group.
In April of this yr, el-Sisi, operating primarily unopposed, was reelected. By no means one to slight an authoritarian ruler, President Trump instantly referred to as to congratulate him after which invited him to the White Home to debate “robust military, economic, and counterterrorism cooperation” between the 2 nations. A few weeks later, in a “snap referendum,” the Egyptian constitution was altered to permit el-Sisi to retain the presidency till a minimum of 2030 — primarily, that is, for all times. That transfer additionally cemented the nation’s army, long its dominant financial power, as its sole political energy, too.
Trump Goes A-Wooing in the Center East and North Africa
From Russia’s Vladimir Putin to Brazil’s Jair Bolsonaro, the American president who “fell in love” with North Korea’s Kim Jong-un has not often met an autocrat he didn’t take to (though his bromance with Kim might finally be souring). So, it’s no shock that el-Sisi’s journey to Washington was a hit and his country is now on the right track to remain the second-largest recipient of U.S. assist after Israel. Ninety-four % of that assist goes to “peace and security” — in different words, to Egypt’s army and police.
Trump is, nevertheless, distinctly polyamorous on the subject of Center Japanese and North African (MENA) autocratic varieties, as his long-standing love affair with Israel’s lately reelected prime minister, Benjamin (Bibi) Netanyahu, signifies. Given Trump’s own historical past of racism, Bibi’s embrace of Israel’s 2018 “Nation-State” regulation undoubtedly solely turned up the warmth on their relationship. This notorious laws strikes Israel further within the path of apartheid. It legalizes Jewish-only communities, demotes Arabic from its status as an official language, and states that “the right to exercise national self-determination” in Israel is “unique to the Jewish people.”
While the world waits lower than breathlessly for Jared Kushner’s long-promised Israel-Palestine peace plan, President Trump retains gift-wrapping pieces of disputed territory and handing them directly to Bibi in his own spontaneous model of an Israel First peace plan. In December 2017 came the announcement of his administration’s choice to move the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Trump claimed that “recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital would advance the peace process and make a permanent status agreement between the two sides easier.” Perhaps he saw this as a move in the direction of peace because it unilaterally took the last word status of Jerusalem, one of many pieces in any such plan, off the Israeli-Palestinian enjoying board.
Subsequent up got here the Golan Heights, a slice of territory on Syria’s western border, captured by Israel in 1967 through the Six Day War between Israel and Jordan, Syria, and Egypt. In 1981, Israel handed a regulation annexing the world, an act rejected by the U.N. Safety Council, whose resolution said that “the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction, and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect.” As a everlasting member of the Safety Council, the USA joined that unanimous vote. Nonetheless, this spring, just before a very close Israeli election, President Trump reversed longstanding coverage and announced his recognition of Israel’s annexation of the Heights. Completely happy Birthday, Bibi.
In the days earlier than the election, Netanyahu then doubled down on annexation, proclaiming his intention to make Jewish settlements on the West Financial institution a everlasting a part of Israel together with the Golan Heights. In so doing, he’ll be fulfilling Ariel Sharon’s decades-old boast about Israel’s intentions for the Palestinians:
“We’ll make a pastrami sandwich out of them. We’ll insert a strip of Jewish settlements in between the Palestinians, and then another strip of Jewish settlements right across the West Bank, so that in twenty-five years’ time, neither the United Nations nor the United States, nobody, will be able to tear it apart.”
In the meantime, Trump seems to have developed a new crush, this time on a Libyan army determine the New York Occasions calls a “would-be strongman”: 75-year-old self-styled “Field Marshal” Khalifa Hifter. Based mostly in the japanese part of Libya, where he has been aligned with considered one of that divided land’s a number of rival governments, Hifter, a former CIA asset, launched an attack on the capital, Tripoli, on April fifth. Although not successful to date, his assault has already brought on a whole lot of deaths, with more more likely to comply with.
A Mediterranean port within the northwestern corner of the nation, Tripoli houses Libya’s internationally acknowledged authorities headed by Prime Minister Fayez Sarraj, which doesn’t truly do much governing. Ever because the Obama administration and NATO intervened to topple autocrat Muammar al-Gaddafi, power in Libya has been divided among multiple militias, together with Hifter’s army, and Islamist teams like ISIS.
When the sector marshal attacked Tripoli, the initial Trump administration response was swift and unfavourable. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo issued a press release indicating the opposition of “the administration at the highest levels,” saying that “we oppose the military offensive.” He urged Hifter to right away “halt… these military operations.” His response accorded with that of “most Western governments and the United Nations,” which, in response to the New York Occasions, “have also condemned the attack and demanded a retreat.”
Hours later, nevertheless, President Trump personally referred to as Hifter (as Nationwide Safety Advisor John Bolton had executed earlier) and primarily encouraged him to keep up his assault on Tripoli. In accordance with a White House assertion:
“The President recognized Field Marshal Hifter’s significant role in fighting terrorism and securing Libya’s oil resources, and the two discussed a shared vision for Libya’s transition to a stable, democratic political system.”
Why is Donald J. Trump supporting a Libyan warlord, whilst his transfer to take Tripoli seems to be failing? Maybe as a result of Hifter also has the help of Trump’s different MENA buddies, Egypt’s el-Sisi, the Saudi Arabian authorities of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman — which solely lately executed 37 individuals (36 beheaded and one crucified), together with a number of who confessed beneath torture and have been minors at the time of their alleged crimes — and the leaders of the United Arab Emirates. Those Arab powers are betting that Hifter can suppress any Libyan version of the Muslim Brotherhood. And there’s yet one more autocrat backing Hifter, Trump’s previous flame Vladimir Putin. Indeed, for once Russia and america find themselves on the identical aspect in the U.N. Security Council, where they joined to block a decision demanding a ceasefire and condemning Hifter’s army strikes. Meanwhile, in a gesture of affection for the Saudis, Trump vetoed a decision passed with uncommon bipartisan congressional help that may have ended U.S. backing for the Kingdom’s brutal struggle in Yemen.
For all his love of authoritarians, there’s, nevertheless, one Middle Japanese nation that hasn’t gained Trump’s affections: Iran. In Might 2018, he pulled america out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPA), a world accord underneath which Iran had agreed not to develop nuclear weapons. In return, financial sanctions on that nation have been eased, while it was allowed to resume selling oil on the international market, and regained entry to billions of dollars in frozen belongings overseas.
The JCPA’s different signatories included Russia, France, Nice Britain, and China, along with Germany and the European Union. None of them followed Trump’s lead. Solely just lately, his administration has threatened sanctions towards any country shopping for oil from Iran after Might 1st, a move mainly affecting China, India, Japan, South Korea, and Turkey. This try and economically starve Iran into submission comes whilst his administration declared that nation’s Revolutionary Guards a “ foreign terrorist organization.” As the hardliners in each lands face off, additional escalation turns into more and more, and dangerously, possible.
As we brace for a potential future battle with Iran (what might probably go fallacious?), it’s typically straightforward for those of us who have spent our lives opposing U.S. army actions to overlook that Washington isn’t, in truth, behind every world occasion. Different peoples have their very own struggles and their own company — on show this spring in two MENA nations which have lengthy suffered beneath corrupt and authoritarian governments: Algeria and Sudan. (And there look like stirrings in Morocco, as nicely.)
Algeria: Each semester I present the students in my Ethics: War, Torture, and Terrorism class The Battle of Algiers. Director Gillo Pontecorvo’s basic film depicts the first urban uprising towards French colonial power by Algeria’s National Liberation Front (FLN), brutally suppressed by France’s paratroopers between 1954 and 1957. It incorporates sufficient warfare, torture, and terrorism to gasoline a semester’s value of dialog. Inevitably, college students need to know what occurred in Algeria after the French have been lastly driven out in 1962. “That,” I tell them, “is a sad story.”
Certainly it’s. After leading Algerians to victory over France, the FLN ruled the nation for nearly 20 years, principally beneath army management after a 1965 coup. Following widespread uprisings in 1988, a brand new structure opened political area for other parties, whereas decreasing the military’s position in authorities. The preferred of these parties turned out to be the Islamic Salvation Entrance (FIS), which was dedicated to a fundamentalist model of political Islam. When it appeared clear that the FIS would win both local and national elections, the FLN and the army stepped in to stop it, leading to a collection of coups and an ongoing civil conflict.
Ultimately, a brand new FLN leader, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, got here to power in 1999 and by no means left. Earlier this yr, he announced by means of intermediaries — he has not been seen in public since 2014 — that he would search a fifth time period. Evidently affected by abdomen cancer, he had a stroke in 2013 and has been in another country a lot of the time since for medical remedy, most just lately in Switzerland.
The newest announcement finally provoked a full-scale fashionable rebellion, led by — and this could sound familiar to readers of this piece — al-shebab, the youth, lots of whom had recognized no different president. (“Youth” is engaging, which might be why a terror group in Somalia has also taken that identify.) In an oil-rich country the place a quarter of these beneath 30 are out of labor, the youthful era is fed up with behind-the-scenes army rule, a sick autocrat, and the pervasive corruption that goes with it all. For weeks this spring, Algerians of their tens of millions poured into the streets, demanding that Bouteflika depart workplace. On April 2nd, dealing with this large, determined, non-violent resistance — and with a push from the army — he resigned. Seventy-seven-year-old Abdelkader Bensalah, like Bouteflika a veteran of the warfare of independence, has changed him until new elections in July.
The protesters haven’t, nevertheless, let up, arguing that Bouteflika may be gone however the power construction that stored him in office — “le pouvoir” — continues to be operating the government. Maybe as a sop to the movement, on April 22nd, the police detained 5 of the nation’s strongest businessmen on accusations of corruption. It stays to be seen whether the power of this new resistance may be converted right into a political model of individuals’s energy for the long run.
Sudan: In the meantime in Sudan, weeks of equally large fashionable uprisings have dislodged one other autocrat, forcing that country’s army to remove President Omar al-Bashir. He is now reportedly in prison, whereas a search of his house turned up luggage containing greater than $100 million in money.
As in Algeria, most of the demonstrators are young and in Sudan a majority of them look like ladies. Probably the most organized amongst them is a gaggle of docs, other well being staff, and legal professionals often known as the Sudanese Professionals Affiliation. As in Algeria, the key query is whether this movement will have the ability to maintain out towards the facility of the army till a genuinely civilian authorities could be installed.
The unique Arab Spring — Tunisia probably excluded — led to bloodshed and autocratic or army rule. Still, the youth in elements of the area clearly stay both dissatisfied and hopeful enough to take to the streets to attempt to convey democracy and clean government to their nations.
An American Spring?
Speaking of growing older autocrats, we’ve received considered one of our personal in Washington, D.C. So where are the American hundreds of thousands within the streets? Where is our American Spring? Admittedly, we have been there when he first took office, however two years of constant outrage seem to have worn us down or out. As a whirlwind tour of the MENA region suggests, the dying and destruction Donald Trump has had a hand in producing extends far past our own borders. And we will add to the record of horrors perhaps the best considered one of all: his obvious willpower to hasten the collapse of civilization by pulling the U.S. out of the Paris climate accords and doubling down on fossil fuels.
And then there’s the query of our own quaint constitution with its attachment to the rule of regulation. Now that we have now the (redacted) Mueller report, isn’t it time for People to face up for democracy and clean government right here at house? I can perceive Nancy Pelosi’s reluctance to begin impeachment proceedings, given the unlikelihood of a conviction by a Republican Senate. But when we don’t need to find yourself like so many different nations, replacing one autocrat with one other, we’ve to discover a method to hold the one we now have accountable for his high crimes and misdemeanors.
Rebecca Gordon, a TomDispatch common, teaches at the University of San Francisco. She is the writer of American Nuremberg: The U.S. Officers Who Ought to Stand Trial for Publish-9/11 War Crimes. Her earlier books embrace Mainstreaming Torture: Ethical Approaches in the Submit-9/11 United States and Letters from Nicaragua.
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Copyright Rebecca Gordon 2019